Introduction to Super-Kamiokande
This page contains resources for students beginning to work on Super-Kamiokande (SK).
The first thing to do is to read some background information about the experiment. After that, a series of tutorials are available to familiarize you with SK software and data.
The tutorials are now ready for use. Let’s get ready for an adventure in SK software!
If you find any typos, or ways to improve the tutorials, please contact one of us in the Duke Neutrino Group.
Slides and papers with info on SK
Some slides by Kate Scholberg on neutrino physics and Super-K:
Slides 01/31/06: first introduction to Super-K data
Slides 02/06/06: Super-K physics I: neutrino oscillations
Slides 02/13/06: Super-K physics II: beam experiments
Slides 03/06/06: Super-K physics III: measuring the matrix
Slides 03/27/06: The SuperNova Early Warning System
A reading list put together by Kate (updated by Josh) for serious students starting on Super-K or T2K:
A reading list for serious students
Help on Fortran and C++
Most of these tutorials will involve editing code written in Fortran or C++. All the code examples now have versions in both languages. If you’re unfamiliar with programming, it may be helpful to check out this C++ tutorial, or this Fortran tutorial (if you plan to go with Fortran). Also, there is a note for the Fortran tutorial, if running at Duke).
Useful ROOT resources
Most of our data analysis work is done using a software package called ROOT. ROOT was developed by our friends at CERN to do more or less everything, from storing data to multivariate analysis to plotting. It’s commands are (more or less) based on C++, and its libraries can be compiled into C++ programs. Since you will be using ROOT a lot, I highly recommend going over at least one of the following ROOT tutorials, some time before doing the “Step 3: Histograms!” Super-K tutorial (there’s a reminder at the beginning of that tutorial).
The tutorials here are intended for students beginning work on Super-Kamiokande. Access to computers which have the SK software installed is required.
We now have versions of the tutorials in both fortran and C++. Students planning to work specifically on SK software should, at the very least, familiarize themselves with how the fortran code works. Students whose focus will be other experiments of neutrino physics (such as T2K, HALO, or DUNE) may find the C++ versions more useful. Both sets of tutorials go over the same things, the only reason to do a tutorial in both languages is to see how the code differs (it may be interesting).
In the tutorials, information that applies specifically to students at Duke is colored blue, and information specifically for the Kamioka computers is colored green.
Links to each of the tutorial steps, each on its own page
Step 5: Monte Carlo Simulation
Some useful how-tos:
- How to make decent-looking plots
- How-to for using the SK Subversion repository
- How to write ZBS events to an output file
- How to access OD info (also, example of old rflist method)
- How to specify multiple files with a wildcard for an rflist script (obsolete)
- How to select a random uniform or isotropic distribution
- How to run Geant4 on the Duke machines
- How to use condor on Duke machines
Various tools you may need:
- The operating system used on the Duke physics cluster is Linux, based on Scientific Linux, so you should become familiar with basic commands. The Duke Physics Computer Support page has more info.
- C++ and Perl: languages it’s good to know (although lots of SK software is, sadly, written in crunchy old Fortran).
- GNU Make, used for compilation.
- ROOT: the newer all-purpose physics package
- CERN Program Library: many handy routines. Includes PAW, Physics Analysis Workstation.
- Geant 4: a simulation package. The other Geant is still used.
- GENIE, a neutrino interaction generator.
- How to use git
- ZBS primer and list of ZBS subroutines by J. Kanzaki
- Condor, parallel job management software. You could find basic instructions in condor_intro.